A National Day of Mourning

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A National Day of Mourning

The First Real Thanksgiving

26 May 1637


The First Thanksgiving at Plymouth by Jennie A. Brownscombe (1914)

Popular history is contingent upon the historian who writes it. Every event in history is seen through the eyes of
those who witness it. Each perspective is unique.
Much of America's understanding of the early relationship between the Indian and the European is conveyed through
the story of Thanksgiving. Proclaimed a holiday in 1863 CE by Abraham Lincoln, this fairy tale of a feast was
allowed to exist in the American imagination pretty much untouched until 1970 CE, the 350th anniversary of the
landing of the Pilgrims. That is when Frank B. James, president of the Federated Eastern Indian League, prepared a
speech for a Plymouth banquet that exposed the Pilgrims for having committed, among other crimes, the robbery of the
graves of the Wampanoags. He wrote:, prepared a speech for a Plymouth banquet that exposed the Pilgrims for having
committed, among other crimes, the robbery of the graves of the Wampanoags. He wrote:

"We welcomed you, the white man, with open arms, little knowing that it was the beginning of the end; that before 50
years were to pass, the Wampanoag would no longer be a free people."

Although white Massachusetts officials told him he was not allowed to deliver such a speech and offered to write him
another. Instead, James declined to speak, and on Thanksgiving Day hundreds of Indians from around the country came
to protest. It was the first National Day of Mourning, a day to mark the losses Native Americans suffered as the
early settlers prospered. This true story of "Thanksgiving" is what whites did not want Mr. James to tell.

Thanksgiving Turkey and dressing, pumpkin pie and American football.Parents going to schools to watch their children
in plays about grateful pilgrims and their Indian benefactors. The age old tale of the Indians bringing food to feed
the starving pilgrims.That story is a not a clear truth. It was one that was begun to cover up what really happened
all those years ago.

As with most of America’s history it comes from miss-history and the fact that most people think of the Pilgrims as
these “incredibly righteous people” that invited the “savage Indians” to their first Thanksgiving so that the
“savages” would not starve. This is incorrect history and information. Here is a more accurate historical
Thanksgiving account.

Puritanism was a religious reform movement that arose within the Church of England in the late sixteenth century CE.
The term Puritan was first used in the late 1500's to identify a party within the Church of England, the national
church. The party sought to make further changes in the church than had been brought about by Protestant reforms
during the reigns of King Henry VIII, King Edward VI, and Queen Elizabeth I. Defenders of these reforms called the
party members Puritans for the reason that of their proposals to "purify" the church.

The Puritans believed anyone who was not an Anglican was a heretic, including Catholics, Lutherans, Anabaptists,
Antinomians, Quakers, and Ranters… in short, anyone who was not Anglican. They perceived that the break from the
Catholic Church which occurred in 1535 CE was not enough. For instance, they perceived that instead of a pope, the
Anglican Church substituted the king as the religious head. They, in general, saw England as having recapitulated
the very corrupt order which they separated from.

The English Puritans and the Pilgrims first left England in 1609 CE subsequently that they would be capable of
practising the religion they chose. An English law, the 1559 CE Act of Uniformity, demanded that all British
citizens attend services and follow the traditions of the Church of England. The Puritans not choosing to do this
went to Holland and settled in Amsterdam, Holland, where they were free to practise their religion.

In the most basic sense, it is possible to declare that the Puritans left England for the same reason as did the
Pilgrims. The Puritans were also nonconformists and accepted only the revealed word’s authority. While both groups
were seeking religious freedom, there is indeed a distinct difference between the two groups. First off, the
Pilgrims were separatists. They were breaking off from the Anglican Church.

The Puritans, on the other hand, had no intentions of separating from their mother church. Only that they intend to
purify the said church from within. However, when it came to settling the new found territory, the Puritans were
more prepared.

In Amsterdam some disputes arose over church affairs and in 1609 CE a group of about one hundred Separatists moved
to Leiden, Holland, where they centred their activities around Leiden University under the leadership of Pastor John
Robinson. At that time, Leiden University was one of the leading universities in Europe.

However while it is written that they enjoyed the freedom the Dutch republic offered, and some of them did quite
well economically. On the other hand, a considerable part of the group was unable to find employment in the city,
hampered by their rural backgrounds and the language barrier.

After nearly a decade, the Puritans decided to leave Holland again, triggered by the economic hardship of a part of
the group, the fear of eventual assimilation of their small group into Dutch society and religion, and the wish to
be missionaries, to spread the (puritan view of) the gospel.

The Puritans and the Pilgrim separatists came to the New World together. Both of these communions perceived
themselves to be Christians on a mission. The Pilgrims were Separatists. They were similar to the Puritans in their
enthusiasm for Biblical Christianity. However the Pilgrims did not have the Puritan political zeal for hammering out
a Christian church-state system. They simply perceived themselves as sojourners in the land. They were travellers on
a pilgrim pathway leading onwards into history. Their ultimate destination was the Holy City and a destiny far more
glorious than anything that the systems of this present world was capable of ever offering. The Pilgrim dream was
perceived of as being a holy one and one that would give meaning to their journey through life, even straight
through to the end of the age. For the Pilgrims their dream was not something that was capable of being attained in
this present world system. No political machinations on their part was capable of bringing it into being. Pilgrims
believed that all their efforts to sanctify their nation, (or any of the kingdoms of this world for that matter),
would have only limited success until their Messiah came. The city they sought was the one that Abraham looked for.
They were looking for a city not made with human hands. They were fellow heirs of the same divine promise given to
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

Most of the pilgrims who made the trip were actually Separatist farmers. They were very poor, mostly uneducated, and
had little money to invest in a trip all the way across the Atlantic.

The group of pilgrims went to a man named Thomas Weston. Weston was a very successful, wealthy iron merchant in
London. He promised the pilgrims that he himself, not a Dutch or Virginia company, would be able to fully fund the
trip. The pilgrims agreed to Weston’s proposal and he funded the trip once an agreement was reached.

Their trip was financed by a group of English investors, the Merchant Adventurers. It was agreed that the Pilgrims
would be given passage and supplies in exchange for their working for their backers for 7 years.

The Pilgrims purchased a small ship, the Speedwell, which had carried the Puritans from Holland to Southampton,
England. Whenthe Mayflower arrived in Southampton, England, it rendezvous with the Speedwell, where they were
joined by another group of English separatist colonists who had been gathered by the investors, and picked up a
second ship, the Mayflower. The Mayflower (with 80 passengers) and the Speedwell (with about 40 passengers) set sail
and headed for Virginia. After twice turning back to England for the reason that the Speedwellleaked, they were
forced to leave the ship. As a result, many families were divided when some passengers had to be turned back for
lack of space. When the Mayflower finally set sail for the New World on 16 September 1620 CE , from Plymouth,
Devon, Englandthere where aboard were 44 Pilgrims, who called themselves the "Saints", and 66 others, whom the
Pilgrims called the "Strangers," with about 110 passengers, fewer than half of them from Leiden. They arrived on
11 November 1620 CE initially at Provincetown Bay and later settled at what became known of as Plymouth on 16
December 1620 CE.




The Pilgrims had intended to settle near the mouth of the Hudson River, although had been blown off course in stormy weather. After 66 days at sea, they sighted land and anchored at the tip of Cape Cod (now Provincetown), which was far north of the territory officially granted to them in northern Virginia.

For 36 days they remained at Cape Cod. Here the 41 men, pilgrims and "strangers" together, wrote the Mayflower Compact. To avoid rebellion and anarchy in the new land, the men signed this legal covenant (their constitution) thus establishing a self-government that promised equal rights and elections:

The Pilgrims established their first home in an empty Patuxet’s village where the inhabitants had recently been wiped out by an epidemic. With typical religious certainty, the leaders concluded that their God had cleared the site for his chosen people. During the first winter, adverse weather conditions and lack of food took a heavy toll among the original 102 colonists.

Many of the colonists fell ill. They were almost certainly suffering from scurvy and pneumonia caused by a lack of shelter in the cold, wet weather. Although the Pilgrims were not starving, their sea-diet was very high in salt, which weakened their bodies on the long journey and during that first winter. As many as two or three people died each day during their first two months on land. Only 52 people survived the first year in Plymouth. When Mayflower left Plymouth on 5 April 1621 CE, she was sailed back to England by only half of her crew.

The story began in 1605 CE, where a Native member of the Patuxet tribe named Tisquantum, (called Squanto by the English) who made their home on the site of the Pilgrims landing at present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts named Tisquantum, (called Squanto by the English) was kidnapped by Captain George Weymouth who had landed on this particular coastline and returned to England. Besides Tisquantum another 24 Natives were also taken as slaves and the sailors left smallpox, syphilis, and gonorrhea in their wake. Squanto spent nine years in England where he learned the language. After he returned to New England Squanto was captured by a British slaver and sold to Spaniards in the Caribbean Islands. A Franciscan priest helped him get to England via Spain. Later Squanto found Weymouth, who paid his way home. While in England, Squanto met Samoset, Wabanake Tribe member, who also left New England with an English explorer. They returned to Patuxet in 1620.By the time the Pilgrims arrived in Massachusetts Bay they found only one living Patuxet Indian, Squanto who taught them to grow corn and to fish, and negotiated a peace treaty between the Pilgrims and the Wampanoag Nation.

A little known fact: Squanto, the so-called "hero" of the what many perceived to be the first “Thanksgiving Day”, was executed by the Indians for his treacheries.


However as word spread in England about the paradise to be found in the new world, religious zealots known of as
Puritans began arriving by the boat load. Finding no fences around the land, they considered it to be in the public
domain. Joined by other British settlers, they seized land, capturing strong young Natives for slaves and killing
the rest. Although the Pequot Nation had not agreed to the peace treaty Squanto had negotiated and they fought back.
The Pequot War was one of the bloodiest “Indian” wars ever fought.

According to a single-paragraph account in the writings of one Pilgrim, a harvest feast did take place in Plymouth
in 1621 CE, probably in mid-October, although the Indians who attended were not even invited. Though it later became
known as "Thanksgiving," the Pilgrims did not ever call it that. And amidst the imagery of a picnic of interracial
harmony is some of the most terrifying bloodshed in New World history.

What Really Happened in Plymouth in 1621 CE?

The Pilgrim crop had failed miserably that year, however the agricultural expertise of the Natives had produced
twenty acres of corn, without which the Pilgrims would have surely perished. The Natives often brought food to the
Pilgrims, who came from England ridiculously unprepared to survive and hence relied almost exclusively on handouts
from the overly generous Indians-thus making the Pilgrims the western hemisphere's first class of welfare
recipients. The Pilgrims invited the Natives sachem Massasoit to their feast, and it was Massasoit, engaging in the
tribal tradition of equal sharing, who then invited ninety or more of his Native brothers and sisters-to the
annoyance of the 50 or so ungrateful Europeans. No turkey, cranberry sauce or pumpkin pie was served; they likely
ate duck or geese and the venison from the 5 deer brought by Massasoit. In fact, most, if not all, of the food was
most likely brought and prepared by the Indians, whose 10,000-year familiarity with the cuisine of the region had
kept the Europeans alive up to that point.

The Wampanoagans had six yearly harvest festivals. The Maple Dance, thanking the Creator for maple trees and their
syrup, was the beginning of their new year. Next was the Planting Feast, when seeds were blessed, followed by the
Strawberry Festival, celebrating the first fruits of the season. Summer’s Green Corn Festival gave thanks for
ripening corn and late fall’s Harvest Festival gave thanks for the harvested crops, which coincides with what is now
considered to be the first Thanksgiving. There’s a dearth of information about the Midwinter Festival, the last one
of the old year.

The Pilgrims wore no black hats or buckled shoes-these were the silly inventions of artists hundreds of years since
that time. These lower-class Englishmen wore brightly coloured clothing, with one of their church leaders recording
among his possessions "1 paire of greene drawers." Contrary to the fabricated lore of storyteller’s generations
since, no Pilgrims prayed at the meal, and the supposed good cheer and fellowship ought to have dissipated quickly
once the Pilgrims brandished their weaponry in a primitive display of intimidation. What is more, the Pilgrims
consumed a good deal of home brew. In fact, each Pilgrim drank at least a half gallon of beer a day, which they
preferred even to water. This daily inebriation led their governor, William Bradford, to comment on his people's
"notorious sin," which included their "drunkenness and uncleanliness" and rampant "sodomy"...

The Pilgrims of Plymouth, The Original Scalpers

Contrary to popular mythology the Pilgrims were no friends to the local Indians. They were engaged in a ruthless war
of extermination against their hosts, even as they falsely posed as friends. Just days before the alleged
Thanksgiving love-fest, a company of Pilgrims led by Myles Standish actively sought to chop off the head of a local chief. They deliberately caused a rivalry between two friendly Indians, pitting one against the other in an attempt to obtain "better intelligence and make them both more diligent." An 11-foot-high wall was erected around the entire settlement for the purpose of keeping the Indians out.

Any Indian who came within the vicinity of the Pilgrim settlement was subject to robbery, enslavement, or even murder. The Pilgrims further advertised their evil intentions and white racial hostility, when they mounted five cannons on a hill around their settlement, constructed a platform for artillery, and then organized their soldiers into four companies-all in preparation for the military destruction of their friends the Indians.

Pilgrim Myles Standish eventually got his bloody prize. He went to the Indians, pretended to be a trader, then beheaded an Indian man named Wituwamat. He brought the head to Plymouth, where it was displayed on a wooden spike for many years, according to Gary B. Nash, "as a symbol of white power." Standish had the Indian man's young brother hanged from the rafters for noble measure. From that time on, the whites were known to the Indians of Massachusetts by the name "Wotowquenange," which in their tongue meant cutthroats and stabbers.

These Pilgrims, Puritans, weren’t merely religious conservatives persecuted by the English King for their beliefs. They were revolutionaries who intended to overthrow the government. The English considered the Puritans as religious bigots who wanted to found a new nation, independent from England. The New England Puritans used any tactics, including treachery, torture and genocide to achieve their goals.

The background for the Pilgrim's first Thanksgiving is found in Bradford's History. In the fall of 1621 CE, their first fall in the New World.

The original account of what is taught to be the first Pilgrim Thanksgiving is in a letter from Edward Winslow in Plymouth, dated December 21st, 1621CE to George Morton in England. It was printed in Mourt's Relation, London, 1662 CE. Winslow relates the following:

"We set last spring some twenty acres of Indian corn, and sowed some six acres of barley and peas. According to the manner of the Indians we manured our ground with herrings (alewives) which we have in great abundance and take with great ease at our doors. Our corn did prove well, and God be praised, we had a good increase in Indian corn. Our barley did indifferent good, but our peas not worth the gathering. We feared they were too late sown. They came up very well and blossomed, but the sun parched them in the blossom. Our harvest being gotten in, our Governor sent four men on fowling, that so we might, after a special manner, rejoice together, after we had gathered in the fruits of our labours. They four in one day killed as many fowl as with little help besides, served the Company for almost a week, at which time, amongst our recreations, we exercised our arms, many of the Indians coming amongst us, and amongst the rest their great king the Massasoit, with some ninety men, whom for three days we entertained and feasted. They went out and killed five deer, which they brought in to the Plantation, and bestowed on our Governor, and upon the Captain and others. Although it not always be so plentiful as it was at this time with us, yet by the goodness of God, we are so far from want that we often wish you partakers of our plenty. -- We have found the Indians very faithful in their Covenant of Peace with us; very loving and ready to pleasure us. Some of us have been fifty miles into the country by land with them. -- There is now great peace amongst us; and we, for our parts, walk as peaceably and safely in the woods here as in the highways in England. - I never in my life remember a more seasonable year than we have enjoyed. -- If we have but once kine, horses and sheep, I make no question but men might live as contented here, as in any part of the world. -- The country wanteth only industrious men to employ, for it would grieve your hearts to see so many miles together with goodly rivers uninhabited, and withall to consider those parts of the world wherein you live to be seven greatly burdened with abundance of people."

Who Were the "Savages"?

The myth of the fierce, ruthless Indian savage lusting after the blood of innocent Europeans ought to be vigorously dispelled at this point. In actuality, the historical record shows that the very opposite was true.

Once the European settlements stabilised, the whites turned on their hosts in a brutal way. The once amicable relationship was breeched again and again by the whites, who lusted over the riches of Indian land. A combination of the Pilgrims' demonisation of the Indians, the concocted mythology of Eurocentric historians, and standard Hollywood propaganda has served to paint the gentle Indian as a tomahawk-swinging savage endlessly on the warpath, lusting for the blood of the God-fearing whites.

However the Pilgrims' own testimony obliterates that fallacy. The Indians engaged each other in military contests from time to time, but the causes of "war," the methods, and the resulting damage differed profoundly from the European variety:

• Indian "wars" were largely symbolic and were about honour, not about territory or extermination.
• "Wars" were fought as domestic correction for a specific act and were ended when correction was achieved. Such action might clearer be described as internal policing. The conquest or destruction of whole territories was a European concept.
• Indian "wars" were often engaged in by family groups, not by whole tribal groups, and would involve only the family members.
• A lengthy negotiation was engaged in between the aggrieved parties before escalation to physical confrontation would be sanctioned. Surprise attacks were unknown to the Indians.
• It was regarded as evidence of bravery for a man to go into "battle" carrying no weapon that would do any harm at a distance-not even bows and arrows. The bravest act in war in some Indian cultures was to touch their adversary and escape before he could do physical harm.
• The targeting of non-combatants such as women, children, and the elderly was not ever contemplated. Indians expressed shock and repugnance when the Europeans told, and then showed, them that they considered women and children fair game in their style of warfare.
• A major Indian "war" might end with less than a dozen casualties on both sides. Often, when the arrows had been expended the "war" would be halted. The European practise of wiping out whole nations in bloody massacres was incomprehensible to the Indian.

According to one scholar, "The most notable feature of Indian warfare was its relative innocuity." European observers of Indian wars often expressed surprise at how little harm they actually inflicted. "Their wars are far less bloody and devouring than the cruel wars of Europe," commented settler Roger Williams in 1643 CE. Even Puritan warmonger and professional soldier Capt. John Mason scoffed at Indian warfare: "[Their] feeble manner...did hardly deserve the name of fighting." Fellow warmonger John Underhill spoke of the Narragansetts, after having spent a day "burning and spoiling" their country: "no Indians would come near us, but run from us, as the deer from the dogs." He concluded that the Indians might fight seven years and not kill seven men. Their fighting style, he wrote, "is more for pastime, than to conquer and subdue enemies."

All this describes a people for whom war is a deeply regrettable last resort. An agrarian people, the American Indians had devised a civilization that provided dozens of options all designed to avoid conflict--the very opposite of Europeans, for whom all-out war, a ferocious bloodlust, and systematic genocide are their apparent life force. Thomas Jefferson--who himself advocated the physical extermination of the American Indian--said of Europe, "They [Europeans] are nations of eternal war. All their energies are expended in the destruction of labor, property and lives of their people."

Puritan Holocaust

By the mid 1630s, a new group of even holier Europeans calling themselves Puritans had arrived on 11 ships and settled in Boston-which only served to accelerate the brutality against the Indians.

Believing that the English had returned to Boston, Massachusetts, the Pequot sachem Sassacus took several hundred of his warriors to make another raid on Hartford anf\d left the village unprotected. What actually occurred was that John Mason actually had only gone to visit the Narragansett to gain support. The Narragansett joined him with several hundred of their own warriors. Several allied Niantic warriors also joined Mason's group. On 26 May 1637 CE, with aforce up to about 400 fighting men.Masonsurround a fortified Pequot village at a place called Missituck (Mystic). Mason attacked by surprise. ThePequot weresurrounded by Dutch and English mercenaries who ordered them to come outside. Those who obeyed were shot or clubbed to death while women and children huddled inside the longhouse and were burned alive. He estimated that "600 to 700" Pequot were there when his forces assaulted the palisade. Some 150warriors had accompanied Sassacus,consequently that Mystic's inhabitants were largely Pequot women and children. Justifying his conduct later, Mason declared that the holocaust against the Pequot was also the act of a God who "laughed his Enemies and the Enemies of his People to scorn making [the Pequot] as a fiery OvenThus did the Lord judge among the Heathen, filling [Mystic] with dead Bodies." Mason also insisted that ought to any Pequot attempt to escape the flames, that they too ought to be killed. Of the 600 to 700 Pequot at Mystic that day, only seven were taken prisoner while another seven made it into the woods to escape.to the apparent delight of the Europeans:



Captain John Underhill, one of the English commanders, documents the event in his journal, Newes from America :

“Down fell men, women, and children. Those that 'scaped us, fell into the hands of the Indians that were in the rear of us. Not above five of them 'scaped out of our hands. Our Indians came us and greatly admired the manner of Englishmen's fight, but cried "Mach it, mach it!" - that is, "It is naught, it is naught, because it is too furious, and slays too many men." Great and doleful was the bloody sight to the view of young soldiers that never had been in war, to see so many souls lie gasping on the ground, so thick, in some places, that you could hardly pass along. “

Repulsed by the "total war" tactics of the Puritan English, and the horrours that they had witnessed, the Narragansett returned home.

Believing the mission accomplished, John Mason also set out for home. The militia became temporarily lost, however in doing so Mason narrowly missed returning Pequot Indians who, seeing what had occurred, gave chase to the Puritan forces to little avail.
To see them frying in the fire, and the streams of their blood quenching the same, and the stench was horrible; although the victory seemed a sweet sacrifice, and they gave praise thereof to God.

This happened just before dawn on 26 May 1637 CE in Mystic, Connecticut: English colonists, for the first time, unleashed total war designed to obliterate an entire Indian tribe in the New World. Hundreds of men, women and children of the Pequot tribe were burned to death on a day that changed forever the relationship between those who had recently arrived and those who had lived here for countless generations.

On 27 May 1637 CE, the next day the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony declared this travesty "A Day of Thanksgiving" for the reason that helpless people were murdered. This event marked the first actual “Thanksgiving”.

In just 10 years 12,000 Europeans had invaded New England, and as their numbers grew they pressed for all-out extermination of the Indian. Euro-dis-eases had reduced the population of the Massachusett nation from over 24,000 to less than 750; meanwhile, the number of European settlers in Massachusetts rose to more than 20,000 by 1646 CE.

By 1675, the Massachusetts Englishmen were in a full-scale war with the great Indian chief of the Wampanoags, Metacomet. Renamed "King Philip" by the white man, Metacomet watched the steady erosion of the lifestyle and culture of his people as European-imposed laws and values engulfed them.

In 1671 CE, the white man had ordered Metacomet to come to Plymouth to enforce upon him a new treaty, which included the humiliating rule that he could no longer sell his own land without prior approval from whites. They also demanded that he turn in his community's firearms. Marked for extermination by the merciless power of a distant king and his ruthless subjects, Metacomet retaliated in 1675 CE with raids on several isolated frontier towns. Eventually, the Indians attacked 52 of the 90 New England towns, destroying 13 of them. The Englishmen ultimately regrouped, and after much bloodletting defeated the great Indian nation, just half a century after their arrival on Massachusetts soil. Historian Douglas Edward Leach describes the bitter end:
The ruthless executions, the cruel sentences...were all aimed at the same goal-unchallengeable white supremacy in southern New England. That the programme succeeded is convincingly demonstrated by the almost complete docility of the local native ever since.

When Captain Benjamin Church tracked down and murdered Metacomet in 1676, his body was quartered and parts were "left for the wolves." The great Indian chief's hands were cut off and sent to Boston and his head went to Plymouth, where it was set upon a pole on the real first "day of public Thanksgiving for the beginning of revenge upon the enemy." Metacomet's nine-year-old son was destined for execution for the reason that, the whites reasoned, the offspring of the devil ought to pay for the sins of their father. The child was instead shipped to the Caribbean to spend his life in slavery.

As the Holocaust continued, several official Thanksgiving Days were proclaimed. Governor Joseph Dudley declared in 1704 CE a "General Thanksgiving"-not in celebration of the brotherhood of man-but for [God's] infinite Goodness to extend His Favours...In defeating and disappointing... the Expeditions of the Enemy [Indians] against us, And the good Success given us against them, by delivering so many of them into our hands...

Just two years later one could reap a ££50 reward in Massachusetts for the scalp of an Indian-demonstrating that the practice of scalping was a European tradition. According to one scholar, "Hunting redskins became...a popular sport in New England, especially since prisoners were worth good money..."

References in The Hidden History of Massachusetts: A Guide for Black Folks ©© DR. TINGBA APIDTA, ; ISBN 0-9714462-0-2

Imagine that a century later, Germans celebrated a holiday based on a sanitised version of German/Jewish history that ignored the holocaust and the deep anti-Semitism of the culture.

Today, there are still approximately 500 Wampanoags living in New England. They do not celebrate the American Thanksgiving.

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